Saturday, 2 April 2016

An Open Iibrary of Research on the Fluoride and Fluorosis Issue

The need for this openly shared library of research on the Fluoride issue has been felt for long. Dr Leela Iyengar initiated this with her collection of around 250 articles on subjects as wide as testing of fluoride in water to absorption of Fluoride within the body tissues. 

Since many of these articles are not open-access, we felt to tag their abstracts and make them available in a systematic manner. 

Those articles that are open-access will be made available with a link here.

The potential is immense with such as library ie initiating more students to do research, serving as a standard reference on the subject and helping useful summaries that provide the current state of knowledge.

If you need any of these referred papers here, please get in touch with us at ,,

Hope you enjoy your way through this treasurehouse of information !!

Friday, 1 April 2016

Food-Based Approaches For Combating Iron Deficiency by Brian Thompson

Iron deficiency is a serious and widespread public health problem. The scale and magnitude of the problem combined with the functional impact such deficiencies have on the quality of life, both physiologically and socioeconomically, require the urgent adoption of known and effective measures. However, the focus of development practitioners on their own narrow area of interest or expertise, be it health care or food, has prevented the realization of a truly comprehensive approach being taken to tackle this critical problem. This chapter is an effort to correct this imbalance and to place food-based approaches back into the center of the debate and to encourage their adoption on a broader scale as a matter of priority.

Open Source Link :

Tamarindus Indica L. – A Review Of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry And Pharmacology by Emmy De Caluwe , Katerina Halamova , Patrick Van Damme

Tamarind or Tamarindus indica L. of the Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae, is an important food in the tropics. It is a multipurpose tree of which almost every part finds at least some use (Kumar & Bhattacharya, 2008), either nutritional or medicinal. Tamarind is indigenous to tropical Africa but it has been introduced and naturalized worldwide in over 50 countries. The major production areas are in the Asian countries India and Thailand, but also in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia.
In America, Mexico and Costa Rica are the biggest producers. Africa on the whole does not produce tamarind on a commercial scale, though it is widely used by the local people. Minor producing countries in Africa are Senegal, Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.

Link :

Highlights of Forty Years of Research on Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis in India by S P S Teotia , M Teotia and K P Singh

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is the state of chronic fluoride intoxication caused by high intakes of natural fluoride through drinking water. Intake through beverage is also harmful, depending on its contents of high fluoride water. Intake through foods is not of practical nor clinical importance, even in the endemic areas where the fluoride concentration in crops is relatively high.

Link :

Thursday, 31 March 2016

Nutrition : Annual Report 2003-2004

In the field of nutrition, major thrust of the Council was on providing technical support and guidance to strengthen the ongoing national nutrition programmes. Community surveys were undertaken besides studies on women’s nutritional status, diet related cancers, micronutrient deficiencies, non-communicable diseases due to nutritional deficiencies such as diabetes, cataract etc. Surveys were also conducted for finding out nutritional status of tribals in various states of the country. The Council’s National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad undertakes most of the studies in nutrition.

Health and Nutrition Profile of Tribals of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh By Tapas Chakma, P. Vinay Rao, P.K. Meshram, S.B. Singh

Central India, which constitutes mainly of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and its adjoining area, holds 23% of the total population of the country. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh has about 46 Scheduled Tribes of which 7 of them are declared as primitive tribes. The primitive tribes are Saharias of Chambal division, Bharias of Patalkot, Baigas of Baigachak area, Hill Korbas and Birhors of Sarguja, Kamars of Raipur and Abujhmarias of Bastar. Due to different socio-cultural milieu, different diseases are prevailing among them. However, some of the diseases are common among all these primitive tribes: like acute respiratory infections, sexually transmitted diseases, diarrhoeal diseases and nutritional disorders are common among all these tribes. Some of the genetic disorders like sickle cell anaemia, thalassaemia are restricted to their clan because of consanguineous marriages.

Link :

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

This Article contains tables of recommended dietary as given bellow :

1.  Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins
2. Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements
3. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Vitamins
4. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements
5. Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) for Men and Women 30 Years of Age
6. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
7. Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Macronutrients
8. Additional Macronutrient Recommendations

Improving Project Results Through Integration By Plan International USA

Slow progress on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), particularly sanitation, in developing countries is holding back progress on all other MDGs, according to researchers at the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Review Summit. Achieving the water and sanitation MDGs contributes an average 30 percent toward other MDGs such as girls’ education, maternal and child health, and gender empowerment. Addressing the causes of under 5 child mortality through maternal and child health interventions can be hindered if progress is not also made in the areas of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. Hygiene promotion is the most cost effective health intervention according to the World Bank.

Link :

Hogenakkal Water Supply and Fluorosis Mitigation Project

In India, development of water supply facilities has not been able to keep up with the increase in water usage due to the population growth, leading to a serious imbalance in the supply and demand of water. Also, excess dependency on groundwater forced by delays in the development of water supply facilities utilizing surface water has caused groundwater level depletion, resulting in such problems as contamination of fluoride, arsenic, and other harmful substances in groundwater. In India, the number of patients suffering from fluorosis due to drinking water contamination by fluoride is as high as 66 million. Prolonged consumption of groundwater containing more than the maximum fluoride level (1.5 mg/L) permitted under WHO guidelines has caused serious damage to people’s teeth, bones, internal organs as well as to unborn children. The 11th 5-Year Plan (April 2007–March 2012) by the Government of India, incorporates a “National Fluorosis Mitigation Programme” which deals with the fluoride issue on a national scale for the first time.

Link :

Impacts Of Groundwater Contamination With Fluoride And Arsenic: Affliction Severity, Medical Cost And Wage Loss In Some Villages Of India By Rajnarayan Indu , Sunderrajan Krishnan and Tushaar Shah

In India, high Fluoride concentrations in groundwater (greater than 1 mg/l – milligrams per litre) are widespread in the arid to semi-arid western states of Rajasthan and Gujarat and in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. A field research study conducted at 6 areas severely affected by Fluorosis shows that affordability of safer drinking water is related with higher income level and that the severity of Fluorosis affliction is higher for lower income levels. The cost incurred from medicines and loss of wages is a significant proportion of the earnings and has a general debilitating impact on the affected families. As compared with Fluorosis, the skin afflictions of Arsenicosis carry greater social stigma and incur higher costs on patients. In Nadia district in West Bengal, the impacts of Arsenic contamination are more severe with increasing age. Cumulatively over the entire afflicted population, both Fluoride and Arsenic contamination have a high cost on society and addressing the problem would require more attention from government agencies and society apart from individual awareness.

Link :

Wednesday, 30 March 2016

Status Of Fluoride In Ground Water By Mr.A.Kulasekaran.,M.Sc.,M.A.,A.M.I.E. , Mr.P.Balakrishnan.,B.Sc.

 Fluoride is one of the critical chemical parameters, which influences the quality of ground water in most of the districts in Tamilnadu. The data for fluoride in ground water sources in Tamilandu is now available for the following programs: 

(i) Fluoride testing campaign in 11 districts of Tamilnadu (1994-1995) 
(ii) Periodical water quality monitoring for Observation wells (1991-1999) 
(iii) Testing of water samples for Hand Pump sources (12% coverage) (2000-2001) 
(iv) Testing of water samples for Power Pump sources (100% coverage) (2000-2001)
(v) Testing of water samples for Hand Pump sources (100% coverage) (2001-2002)

Tuesday, 29 March 2016

Nutritional Disorders by RMRCT

In April 1995, centre received a request from the collector and chief medical officer of Mandla district to investigate the cause of a mysterious disease characterized by pain and deformity (Genu valgum) in the lower limbs, mostly among children and adolescents below age 20 in two villages of the district. Thus this epidemiological investigation was undertaken with the objective to find the cause of the knock-knee deformity. The investigation was carried out in two affected villages of Mandla district. The first village was Tilaipani, located about 12 km east of the district headquarter Mandla; the second village was Hirapur, which was about 50 km southwest of Mandla City. Tilaipani had a population of 542 in various age groups, and Hirapur had about 620. Evaluation of data comprised of obtaining and recording of medical histories, detailed clinical and radiological examinations, examination of biochemical parameters of blood, fluoride levels in urine and in all drinking water sources and dietary surveys. Biochemical investigations included serum alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus and serum calcium. Dietary surveys were conducted using the 24-hr recall method. Fluoride levels were estimated using a fluoride ion selective electrode.

Pocket Colorimeter II by Hach

The new Pocket ColorimeterTM II Filter Photometer is a true go-anywhere instrument. It's lightweight and battery operated, suitable for extended field work or quick, on-the-spot process monitoring. The instrument has two channels in which measurements can be made. Each channel will accept a user-defined calibration curve. Up to 10 standards can be used to determine the calibration. The curve is generated by a point-to-point straight line segment between each standard used. Linear and non-linear positive or negative slope calibrations can be performed. A calibration curve may also be manually entered from the keypad if a previously determined curve has been made on the Colorimeter. At least two data pairs (concentration and absorbance) are required.

Draft Specification for Domestic (household) Defluoridation Filter Unit (DDFU/DDU) by Unicef

Fluoride is a normal constituent of most natural waters and its concentration varies depending on the water source. Surface waters seldom have fluoride concentrations beyond 0.3 mg/lit. Geological processes, weathering of fluoride bearing minerals and hydrogeological conditions can lead to higher fluoride levels in groundwater in certain areas, which can become endemic for fluorosis.

Link :

Monday, 28 March 2016

High Efficiency Fluoride Treatment “F-crest” By Takumi Fujita

 A high efficiency neutral fluoride treatment based on calcium phosphate salts as a main raw material
for solidification and insolubilization of fluorine-containing waste as fluoro-apatite in a short period
of time and high efficiency.  Solidification and insolubilization of a low concentration of fluoro-compounds in the environment as sparingly soluble calcium phosphate salts (fluoro-apatite) as suggested by the biomimetic nano surface reaction of applying a fluoro-chemical to teeth for protection of decay.  Very reactive with fluoro-compounds, which are effectively insolubilized with a small amount of “F-crest”. Completion of solidification and insolubilization of fluorine-contaminated soil in a short period of time. No need to replace the contaminated soil. No decrease of soil quality for a long period of time after treatment. More efficient in treating fluorine-containing wastewater than the conventional process based on aluminum sulfate (reduced to about 1/10th of additives). Little generation of sludge.

 link :

Fluoride Removal from Ground Water by Gama-Alumina Coated Ceramic Honeycomb By K. Dasha , U. S. Hareeshb , R. Johnsonb and J. Arunachalama

Studies have been carried out on defluoridation of ground water using gamma alumina coatings on a ceramic honeycomb. The sol gel coated gamma alumina adsorbent was found to adsorb fluoride rapidly and effectively. Coatings on ceramic honeycomb were prepared using a sol of dispersible precursor of boehmite (-AlOOH). The boehmite coating, on calcination at 500°C transformed to alumina. The fluoride removal performance was investigated as a function of the fluoride concentration and flow rate. It was observed that fluoride removal is low at higher flow rate. The specific fluoride uptake capacity was 15400mg of Fremoved /kg of coated -alumina on the ceramic honeycomb from fluoride solution, whereas in case of ground water, the capacity was 12600 mg of Fper kg of coated alumina. The regeneration was effected by passing a dilute solution of aluminum sulfate solution. A fluoride removal kit consisting of five ceramic honeycombs in series was evaluated to defluoridate ground water. Around 200 liters of ground water (initial Fconc. of 5 ppm) could be defluoridated to permissible level of Fconcentration. It is much easier and convenient to regenerate the alumina coated on the honeycombs due to open channel structures of the honeycomb.

Domestic Defluoridation of Water Using Locally Produced Activated Alumina by N V Dzung , H H Phong, N N Long, N T Quang and P Waldemar

A low-cost defluoridator for domestic use is developed, based onactivated alumina as a sorption medium. The filter column is 11.4 cm in diameter and 1 m in height. It is designed to contain about 8 L or about 3 kg of alumina. The alumina is prepared by using aluminium sulphate and sodium hydroxide to precipitate aluminium hydroxide at 60-70 oC. The precipitate is settled, washed,granulated and calcined at 550 - 600 oC for 4 hours. A column test in the laboratory revealed that the fresh alumina could remove fluoride from 5 mg/L to < 0.7 mg/L at a capacity of 1.2 g/kg. The developed filter allows for monthly regeneration of the medium by the users themselves. A quantity of 0.4 kg of aluminium sulphate is used in the regeneration. The filter operates upwards, while the regeneration operates downwards in the filter column. Field-testing data show that the filters could treat water containing about 2 mgF/L down to 0.15 - 0.46 mg/L, thus an average removal efficiency of 85 %. Monitoring of a filter through 5 operation periods shows that the regenerated alumina loaded with water containing 2.6 mgF/L could treat the water at an efficiency of 89 %. Themedium capacity is estimated to be 0.7 gF/kg regenerated alumina. Field experiences show that the villagers very well accept the filter; it is easy to operate and to maintain and the filter costs are affordable to the families, about 45 USD for purchase and 20 US Cents for the monthly regeneration.

Status of Water Treatment Plants in India

Water is a precious commodity. Most of the earth water is sea water. About 2.5% of the water is fresh water that does not contain significant levels of dissolved minerals or salt and two third of that is frozen in ice caps and glaciers. In total only 0.01% of the total water of the planet is accessible for consumption. Clean drinking water is a basic human need. Unfortunately, more than one in six people still lack reliable access to this precious resource in developing world. India accounts for 2.45% of land area and 4% of water resources of the world but represents 16% of the world population. With the present population growth-rate (1.9 per cent per year), the population is expected to cross the 1.5
billion mark by 2050. The Planning Commission, Government of India has estimated the water demand increase from 710 BCM (Billion Cubic Meters) in 2010 to almost 1180 BCM in 2050 with domestic and industrial water consumption expected to increase almost 2.5 times. The trend of urbanization in India is exerting stress on civic authorities to provide basic requirement such as safe drinking water, sanitation and infrastructure. The rapid growth of population has exerted the portable water demand, which requires exploration of raw water sources, developing treatment and distribution systems.

Link :

Monday, 21 March 2016

Serum Ionic Fluoride: Normal Range and Relationship to Age and Sex by Harry Husdan, Rudolph yogi, Dimitrios Oreopoulos, Cyril Gryfe and Abraham Rapoport

We used the Orion fluoride electrode systemtodeterminethe normal range of serum ionic fluoride concentrationsand to investigate its relationship to sex and age (A). 87normal men, age 18-92 years (mean, 46 years), and 49normal women, age 19-64 years (mean, 38 years), participatedin the study. At the 95% confidence limits, males<45 years old had a normal range of 0.29 to 1.52 moI/litre and males  45 years old 0.29 + 0.0101 (A-45)to 1.52+ 0.0101 (A-45) tmol/litre. Females, however, had anormal range of 0.022A - 0.32 to 0.022A + 1.07 tmol/litre. A group of 51 men 18-44 years old was comparedwith a group of 36 men 46-92 years old. The mean serumF of the older group was shown to be significantly greater(P <0.01)than that of the younger group. Factors relatedto serum ionic fluoride values are (a) tea as an importantsource of dietary F, (b) the lack of significant variationduring daytime hours, and (C) the lack of significant differencein concentration between serum and plasma F.Concentrations of serum constituents in normalpeople are in some cases affected by sex and age (1).Recently, in determining the normal range of serumionic fluoride in groups of males and females of differentages, we also noted that age and sex exerted some influence.Although chemical methods (2-5) for measuringserum fluoride have been known for over 25years, it is only since 1968 that it has been recognizedthat fluoride in human serum is partly ionized (6, 7)-chiefly because an instrument for convenientlymeasuring ionic fluoride (8-9) became commerciallyavailable in 1966. The importance of serum ionic fluoridemeasurements is further emphasized in view of theclinical use of fluoride as a treatment for osteoporosis,either alone (10, 11) or in combination with other substancessuch as calcium and vitamin D (12)

Open Source:

Test discs and reagent for semi-quantitative determination of fluoride ions in surface and ground water by

The fluoride test is especially suited for rapid control of fluoride concentrations.
Its purpose is to define concentration ranges and to detect values which fall
short of or exceed given limits.

A Simple Field Method For The Estimation Of Fluoride In Ground Waters For Common Man’s Use by S. V. Rao, Ritu Singh and S. C. Chaurasia

Fluoride is considered as an essential element forhuman beings. In potable waters, a fluorideconcentration of 1 μg/ml is necessary to preventtooth decay. However, at higher concentrations (>2μg/ml), it has adverse effects such as causingfluorosis. Fluoride toxicity is prevailant in variousparts of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh andGujarat. Due to natural as well as anthropogeniccauses, the levels of fluoride in ground waters canimpossible by government laboratories. In order tomonitor fluoride, there is a need for fast, simple andcost effective method, which can be easily adaptedby common man. Visual colorimetric methods wouldbe the most suited for such applications. The mostcommonly used visual method is based onbleaching of Zirconium-Alizarin complex. Thismethod requires one hour for colour developmentand moreover, in this method, change in colour withfluoride concentration is gradual and hence a seriesof standards need to be prepared for quantification.This requires a skilled and experienced person.

Wednesday, 2 March 2016

Chronic Fluorosis: The Disease And Its Anaesthetic Implications By Dr. Madhuri S Kurdi

Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

Link :;year=2016;volume=60;issue=3;spage=157;epage=162;aulast=Kurdi

Monday, 18 January 2016

Thursday, 20 August 2015

Fluoride Exposure Effects And Dental Fluorosis In Children In Mexico City by Nelly Molina-Frechero , Enrique Gaona , Marina Angulo , Leonor Sanchez Perez , Rogelio Gonzalez Gonzalez , Martina Nevarez Rascon , Ronell Bologna-Molina

In recent decades, with the objective of preventing dental cavities, multiple topical and systemic fluorides have been incorporated into different diet products. The administration or ingestion of excessive fluorides leads to toxicity and causes the secondary effect of dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is a disorder that begins in the odontogenesis stage when the teeth are forming, and the clinical manifestations of this disease are more evident in permanent dentition. Clinically, dental fluorosis is characterized by stains that are white, opaque, and do not have the shine of enamel; the teeth can be striated or spotted, and extrinsic stains may be between yellow and dark brown. The affected dental organs can present greatly accentuated perikymata. More severe cases show dis-  connected pits and zones of hypoplasia in the enamel, which can cause the tooth to lose its normal morphology. The frequency and severity of the lesion increase as the ingestion of fluoride in the water increases above 0.7 ppm; in Mexico, this level is recommended to achieve a beneficial effect in the prevention of dental cavities due to the warm climate in Mexico, which leads the population to ingest a greater quantity of liquids.

Link :

Monday, 8 June 2015

Tea And Bone Health: Findings From Human Studies, Potential Mechanisms, And Identification Of Knowledge Gaps by Leslie A. Nash, Wendy E. Ward

The population of the developed world is aging. With this aging population, strategies for prevention rather than treatment of chronic disease, such as osteoporosis, are essential for preserving quality of life and reducing health care costs. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world and is a rich source of flavonoids that may benefit bone health. There is strong evidence from human studies that habitual tea consumption is positively associated with higher BMD at multiple skeletal sites, while the association with fracture risk is less clear. Fracture studies demonstrate a reduction or no difference in fragility fracture with tea consumption. There are key questions that need to be answered in future studies to clarify if higher consumption of tea not only supports a healthy BMD, but also reduces the risk of fragility fracture. And if the latter relationship is shown to exist, studies to elucidate mechanisms can be designed and executed. This review discusses findings from epidemiological studies as well as potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in tea may mediate an effect, and identifies key knowledge gaps in this research area.

Thursday, 28 May 2015

Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies By Xin-Hai Yin , Guang-Lei Huang , Du-Ren Lin , Cheng-Cheng Wan , Ya-Dong Wang , Ju- Kun Song , Ping Xu

Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk.

Link :

Recommendations For Fluoride Limits In Drinking Water Based On Estimated Daily Fluoride Intake In The Upper East Region, Ghana By Laura Craig , Alexandra Lutz , Kate A. Berry, Wei Yang

Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F− L−1, which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F− L−1, which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6–8 years should be 0.6 mg F− L−1 (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F− L−1.

Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Ground and River Water Quality Monitoring using a SmartPhone-Based pH Sensor by Sibasish Dutta, Dhrubajyoti Sarma, and Pabitra Nath

We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectropho-tometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

Link :

Thursday, 12 February 2015

Amelioration Of Fluoride Toxicity Using Amla (Emblica Officinalis) by Sumeet Ranjan and Shahla Yasmin

A study was conducted on the residents of Bhupnagar, a fluoride endemic village in Gaya district, Bihar, to assess the ameliorating effect of amla (Emblica officinalis)  on fluoride-induced toxicity. Fifty-three subjects of different age groups were included in the study. Among these, 27 subjects (test group) were given amla powder as dietary supplement for 9 months and the rest 26 subjects were kept as control (i.e. without dietary supplement). The mean urinary fluoride level in  the test group was found to decline progressively during the period of supplementation. The study revealed that consumption of amla powder may play an important role in mitigating fluoride-induced toxicity.


Monday, 19 January 2015

Association Between Urine Fluoride And Dental Fluorosis As A Toxicity Factor In A Rural Community In The State Of San Luis Potosi By Lizet Jarquín-Yanez, Jose de Jesus Mejia-Saavedra, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Enrique Gaona, Diana Olivia Rocha-Amador, Olga Dania Lopez-Guzman, and Ronell Bologna-Molina

The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode.The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and theThylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results.The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

Link :

Thursday, 1 January 2015

Fluoride in Drinking Water: Health Effects and Remediation by Meththika Vithanage and Prosun Bhattacharya

Fluoride at low concentration is an essential element for dental health. However groundwater in many countries has exceeding concentrations of fluoride, which poses a health threat to millions of people around the world. It has been estimated that more than 200 million people from among 25 nations are suffering from fluorosis due to the consumption of fluoride-rich drinking water. Fluoride contamination is mostly geogenic however, in some cases anthropogenic industrial inputs may cause a threat. Many techniques have been developed for defluoridation. However a solution is still to be found especially for the household and community supply.

Akvo Caddisfly Fast and easy drinking water fluoride testing using a smartphone by Hans Merton, Samuel Rajkumar

Akvo Caddisfly is a simple, fast, portable and low cost drinking water testing kit that can be used
anywhere to quickly analyse the level of fluoride in drinking water, using a smartphone. Currently
under development, it also allows water quality data to be accurately mapped and shared online.
Both its hardware and software are open source.

Friday, 28 November 2014

A Low Cost Approach To Synthesize Sand Like Alooh Nanoarchitecture (SANA) And Its Application In Defluoridation Of Water By Gaurab Saha , Shihabudheen M. Maliyekkal, P.C. Sabumon, T. Pradeep

This paper describes a chitosan template assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline aluminium oxyhydroxide (g-AlOOH) at an ambient temperature (30  2 C) and atmospheric pressure. High ability of the composite in removing fluoride from water has been demonstrated. The structural, morphological and compositional characteristics of the composite were studied using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that the composite has nanoarchitecture comprising a number of g-AlOOH nanoparticles of size less than 10 nm attached to the fibrils of chitosan. Batch and continuous flow adsorption experiments were conducted to assess the parameters that influence the adsorption process. The parameters investigated include contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose, pH of the solution, co-existing ions in water, and size of the adsorbent granules. The composite showed good affinity to fluoride and the maximum uptake capacity was 13.47 (mg/g) (mg/L)1/n as described by Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetics of adsorption was affected by the size of the granules and the kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. Except bicarbonate and sulfate, other competing ions studied did not affect the uptake of fluoride significantly. The high affinity to fluoride, simple and eco-friendly synthesis approach demonstrate the utility of the material for defluoridation of water.

Link :

Thursday, 20 November 2014

A review on adsorbents used for defluoridation of drinking water By Poonam Mondal, Suja George

Drinking water has been contaminated over decades with some very detrimental compounds such as fluoride. Exposure to fluoride through drinking water above the permissible limit (1.0–1.5 mg/L) causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis. Adsorption technique which deals with adsorbents for fluoride removal from an aqueous solution is a highly efficient and selective process. This review paper provides insights on adsorbents used and developed by researchers for defluoridation of drinking water. It includes various categories of adsorbents used and parameters affecting the whole process. Adsorbents studied by researchers are enlisted with their adsorption capacity, optimum pH, temperature, equilibrium isotherm, kinetics, interfering ions, thermodynamic studies and regeneration procedure adapted. Efforts are needed to develop low cost reusable adsorbents with high adsorption capacity. Although, some adsorbents are reported to show remarkable capacity for fluoride removal; still there is an urgent need for development of more novel adsorbents holding both economic and technological benefits.

Friday, 10 October 2014

Effectiveness Of A Rural Sanitation Programme On Diarrhoea, Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection, And Child Malnutrition In Odisha, India: A Cluster-Randomised Trial By Thomas Clasen, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Belen Torondel, Melissa Bell, Oliver Cumming, Jeroen Ensink, Matthew Freeman, Marion Jenkins, Mitsunori Odagiri, Subhajyoti Ray, Antara Sinha, Mrutyunjay Suar, Wolf-Peter Schmidt

A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do
two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the eff ectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign, to prevent diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition.

Link :

Tuesday, 7 October 2014

Excessive Fluoride Delineating Biochemical Changes in Seminal Plasma: A Case Control Clinical Study By Dushyant Singh Chauhan, Sandeep Tripathi, Vivek Pratap Singh, Surabhi Tomar, Shobha Tomar, Mukesh Tiwari, Abbas Ali Mahdi

Fluorosis has become an endemic problem in India and  worldwide. Significant interest has occurred on potential decline in the semen quality due to contamination of fluoride in drinking water. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible impact of fluoride exposure on the semen quality. In the present study, 150 subjects (age 25-40) were recruited from the high fluoride region of Rajasthan, India, where fluoride content in ground water was more than 2.0 ppm. The age matched controls were selected from the area where fluoride level was less than 1.5 ppm. The total protein, fructose, lipid, phospholipids and cholesterol levels were estimated in seminal plasma and correlates with the semen volume, liquefaction time, viability and motility followed by the estimation of fluoride concentration in serum and urine. A significant (p<0.05) reduction was observed in fructose, protein, lipids and phospholipids while the concentration of cholesterol was raised in subjects as compared to controls. Diminished semen quality in term of Volume, Liquefaction time, Viability and motility were noticed along with the elevated levels of fluoride in serum and urine. On the basis of results it may conclude that high exposure of fluoride through drinking water may be associated with reduced semen quality in population of endemic fluorosis areas.

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Tuesday, 30 September 2014

Sodium Fluoride Promotes Apoptosis by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Lymphocytes by Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Sonali Sinha, Manosij Ghosh, Anish Naga, Aditi Jana & Anita Mukherjee

Fluoride generated the attention of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and with in vivo experimental models. Interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. This study focused on examining the adverse effects of inorganic fluoride (NaF) on human lymphocyte cells in vitro. Mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, cell cycle progression, and mode of cell death were combined with genotoxic endpoints. Data demonstrated that NaF at lower concentrations, although not significantly cytotoxic and genotoxic, induced oxidative stress leading to apoptotic cell death. The results also suggested that at low concentrations (<1 μg/ml), NaF may affect cell cycle progression. Taken together, our findings confirm earlier reports on mechanisms involved in NaF-induced apoptosis.

Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Clinical Study Of Lipid Domains In Erythrocyte Membrane In Chronic Fluorosis by Shashi A and Meenakshi G

The quantification of cholesterol, phospholipid, and proteins in erythrocyte membrane of patients exposed to varying concentrations of fluoride in drinking water was assessed to understand the mechanism of relationship between chronic fluorosis and erythrocyte membrane lipid bilayer. Cholesterol in erythrocyte membrane was determined in dry lipid extract of erythrocyte membrane by the enzymatic manual CHODPAP method in blood samples of 500 patients of male and female patients of fluorosis as well as in age and sex-matched 120 controls. The extract was used for estimation of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. Aliquots of erythrocyte membrane were used to determine the protein content. The relationship of water as well as serum fluoride with cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, and proteins in erythrocyte membrane were assessed by correlation and linear regression analysis. The mean values for cholesterol in erythrocyte membrane in fluorotic patients of both sexes were elevated significantly (F = 1357.07, P<0.001) in all study groups in comparison to control. There was significant (F = 222.40, P<0.001) accumulation of phospholipids in erythrocyte membrane in the examined groups. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was significantly (F = 108.04, P<0.001) higher in fluorotic patients. The level of membrane protein was declined significantly (F = 1378770.14, P<0.001) in erythrocyte membrane in all study groups. Correlation and linear regression analysis showed a positive correlations (P<0.001) of water as well as serum fluoride with cholesterol, phospholipid and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Erythrocyte membrane proteins revealed negative correlations (P<0.001) with water and serum fluoride, that indicate water fluoride being the strong predictor of involvement in depletion of protein content and increased levels of serum fluoride. These pronounced alterations in erythrocyte membrane metabolites of fluorotic patients are responsible for the changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity that
may play a direct role in destabilizing the plasma membrane.

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Wednesday, 20 August 2014

The Influence Of Stereochemistry Of The Active Compounds On Fluoride Adsorption Efficiency Of The Plant Biomass By Hezron T Mwakabona, Revocatus L Machunda, Karoli N Njau

Several studies have reported various defluoridation capabilities of plant biomasses. The resultant variations in fluoride removal capacities are associated with the presence of different types of active functional groups in the respective biomasses. This study reports of the fluoride removal efficiencies of sisal leaf biomass in comparison. Comparison with other plant biomasses were made and hence the fluoride removal efficiencies of maize leaf (ML), goose grass (GG), banana false stem (BFS), Aloe vera (AV), untreated sisal fibre (USF) and sisal pith (SP) with similar active functional groups but different stereochemistry and solubility of the active compounds are reported. A portion of 0.5 g of each biomass was mixed with a 10 mg/l fluoride solution in a 10 ml portions under the same experimental conditions. The maximum fluoride removal capacity of sisal fibre biomass was found to be 26.6 %. By comparison, the fluoride removal efficiencies of ML, GG, BFS, AV, USF and SP were found to be, 4.1, 4.6, 7.1, 26.6, 29.4 and 47.3 % respectively. This suggests that, stereochemistry and solubility of the active compounds have a significant role to play in water defluoridation by plant biomasses, and thus, knowledge of the stereochemistry and solubility of the active compounds in plant biomass is very important to fully unlock biomass defluoridation potentials.

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Thursday, 14 August 2014

Disposable Platform Provides Visual And Color-Based Point-Of-Care Anemia Self-Testing By Erika A. Tyburski, Scott E. Gillespie, Rayford H. Bulloch, Jeanne Boudreaux , Craig R. Forest , Manila Gaddh , Karthik Thota , William A. Stoy , Robert G. Mannino , Alexander J. Weiss, Anyela Cardenas, Wilena Session, Traci Leong , L. Andrew Lyon , Wilbur A. Lam , Hanna J. Khoury , Siobhan O’Connor, Alexa F. Siu, Silvia T. Bunting

Anemia, defined by low hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations in the blood, affects one-third of the world’s population, approximately 2 billion people, and is especially prevalent in young children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly (1). Symptoms of anemia range from weakness, fatigue, and dizziness in milder cases to life-threatening cardiovascular collapse in more severe cases, and chronic anemia leads to permanent neurocognitive deficits in children (2, 3). The most common causes of anemia are nutritional deficiencies (e.g., iron deficiency), primary hematologic diseases (e.g., sickle cell disease, thalassemia, myelodysplastic syndromes), drugs (e.g., cancer chemotherapy), and other chronic conditions that indirectly cause anemia (e.g., chronic kidney disease, inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, HIV) (47). Even in developed nations, anemia remains a major public health issue, as an estimated 85 million people are at high risk for anemia and 5 million people are afflicted by anemia, respectively, in the US alone (811).

Currently, the gold standard for anemia diagnosis is a complete blood count (CBC) using a hematology analyzer, which measures the Hgb levels of a venous blood sample. As CBCs require a venous blood draw from a trained phlebotomist and hematology analyzers require a skilled technician and electrical power to operate, these devices are currently housed in hospitals, clinics, and commercial laboratories, necessitating patients to travel outside of their home to be tested for anemia. With anemia’s widespread prevalence, an inexpensive, disposable, stand-alone point-of-care (POC) anemia diagnostic that is simple enough for untrained people to use as a self-test will enable (a) patients with chronic anemia to self-monitor their disease, improve their quality of life, and potentially improve clinical outcomes and (b) the general public to self-screen for anemia in a cost-effective manner. While several POC anemia diagnostics are currently available, all are currently designed for use by healthcare professionals and none are designed for home use as a self-test (1216).

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Saturday, 19 July 2014

Trends On Oxidative Stress And Antioxidant Status In Fluoride Affected Areas In Kolar District, India By Adarsh Manjunath , C. D. Dayanand , C. Muninarayana , Pradeep Kumar Vegi

In the global scenario, twenty three nations have the problem of excess fluoride in  drinking water and resulting endemicity for fluorosis India lies in a  geographical fluoride belt; fluorosis is an endemic condition prevailed in 17 states of India. The highest  endemicity rate has been reported in Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Tamilnadu and Karnataka In Karnataka, totally 16 districts are endemic viz Dharwad, Gadag, Bellary, Belgaum, Raichur, Bijapur, Gulbarga, Chitradurga, Tumkur, Chikmagalur, Mandya, Bangalore Rural, Mysore, Mangalore, Shimoga  and Kolar. Fluorosis is a disease state caused by excess intake of Fluoride through  drinking water, food, or inhalation. Acute high level exposure to fluoride is rare and usually  due to accidental contamination of drinking water or due to fires or  explosions. Moderate level & chronic exposure of above 1.5 mg/L of water as per the WHO guideline  value of fluoride in water is more common. Fluoride is  also known to cross the cell membranes and to enter soft tissues.

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Saturday, 12 July 2014

Fluoride Exposure From Groundwater As Reflected By Urinary Fluoride And Children's Dental Fluorosis In The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley By Tewodros Rango , Julia Kravchenko , Avner Vengosh , Christopher Paul , Marc Jeuland , Peter McCornick , Redda Tekle-Haimanot

This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F− exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F− concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33 rural communities in which groundwater concentrations of F− cover a wide range. A subset of 156 children was selected for urinary F− measurements. Our results showed that the mean F− concentrations in groundwater were 8.5 ± 4.1 mg/L (range: 1.1–18 mg/L), while those in urine were 12.1 ± 7.3 mg/L (range: 1.1–39.8 mg/L). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe DF in children's teeth was 17%, 29%, and 45%, respectively, and the majority (90%; n = 140) of the children had urinary F− concentrations above 3 mg/L. Below this level most of the teeth showed mild forms of DF. The exposure–response relationship between F− and DF was positive and non-linear, with DF severity tending to level off above a F− threshold of ~6 mg/L, most likely due to the fact that at ~6 mg/L the enamel is damaged as much as it can be clinically observed in most children. We also observed differential prevalence (and severity) of DF and urinary concentration, across children exposed to similar F− concentrations in water, which highlights the importance of individual-specific factors in addition to the F− levels in drinking water. Finally, we investigated urinary F− in children from communities where defluoridation remediation was taking place. The lower F− concentration measured in urine of this population demonstrates the capacity of the urinary F− method as an effective monitoring and evaluation tool for assessing the outcome of successful F− mitigation strategy in relatively short time (months) in areas affected with severe fluorosis.

Link :'s_dental_fluorosis_in_the_Main_Ethiopian_Rift_Valley_Science_of_the_Total_Environment_496_188-197

Sunday, 1 June 2014

Health Impact to Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Drinking Water of South India By M. Shanthi , B V Thimma Reddy , Shivani Kohli

Water is our body’s principle chemical component and makes up about 60 percent of body weight. It is essential to good health and lot of functions like regulating body temperature, carrying nutrients to cells, flushes toxins out of vital organs and so on. It is life for all living beings. But nowadays, pure drinking water is available to very few people and others take more or less contaminated water. The contamination may be caused either by natural forces or by industrial effluents, and one such contamination is fluoride.

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Thursday, 15 May 2014

Protective Effect Of Resveratrol On Sodium Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress, Hepatotoxicity And Neurotoxicity In Rats By Nurgul Atmaca , Hasan Tarik Atmaca , Ayse Kanici , Tugce Anteplioglu

Protective effect of resveratrol on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were studied in rats. A total of 28 Wistar albino male rats were used. Four study groups were randomly formed with seven animals in each. The groups were treated for 21 days with distilled water (control group), with water containing 100 ppm fluoride (fluoride group), with resveratrol (12.5 mg/kg i.p., resveratrol group), or with 100 ppm fluoride + 12.5 mg/kg resveratrol i.p. (fluoride + resveratrol group). At the end of the trial, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and tissue samples were taken simultaneously. The total antioxidant and oxidant status in plasma and tissues as well as plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were measured. Histopathological analyses of rat liver and brain tissues were performed in all groups to identify any changes. In the fluoride group, the total oxidant levels increased in plasma, liver and brain and total antioxidant levels decreased, as did the plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine levels. These changes were prevented by co-administration of resveratrol. In addition, fluoride-associated severe histopathological changes in brain and liver tissues were not observed in the fluoride + resveratrol group. Consequently, these data suggested that resveratrol had beneficial effects in alleviating fluoride-induced oxidative stress.

Tuesday, 1 April 2014

Ameliorative Effect Of Selenium And Curcumin On Sodium Fluoride Induced Hepatotoxicity And Oxidative Stress In Male Mice By Mohammad S. AL-Harbi , Reham Z. Hamza and Afaf A. Dwary

Sodium fluoride is the most commonly used compound in oral caries prevention in the form of fluorinated drinking water, salts or milk, tooth pastes, mouth washes and fluoride tablets that adversely affects liver functions parameters. This study evaluated the effects of Sodium fluoride on liver function parameters and also assessed the ameliorating effects of selenium and Curcumin extract. Mature male mice (weighing 35-45 g and each group of ten animals) were given sodium fluoride (10.3 mg/Kg bw) and/or Selenium (0.5 mg/Kg) + Curcumin extract (60 mg/Kg) daily intraperitoneally (I.P) for 4 weeks. In the present study, Sodium Fluoride exposure resulted in an increase in the ALT, AST, Total Protein and LDH levels with respect to the control. Further, Light microscopic investigation revealed that Sodium fluoride exposure induced histopathological alterations in the liver tissues. Supplementations of Curcumin and/or selenium to Sodium fluoride -induced groups increased liver enzymes activities. While some histopathological changes were observed in animal Co-treated with Curcumin extract and /or selenium supplementation to Sodium fluoride treated mice. As a result, Sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity is reduced by Curcumin extract and/or selenium to great extent by the entire restoration of the histological structures.

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Thursday, 27 March 2014

Preparation Of Cao Loaded Mesoporous Al2O3: Efficient Adsorbent For Fluoride Removal From Water By Desagani Dayananda , Narendra N. Ghosh , Venkateswara R. Sarva , Sivankutty V. Prasad , Jayaraman Arunachalam

In this paper, we report a simple chemical method for the preparation of CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 based adsorbents, which can be used for fluoride removal from water. The synthesized adsorbents were characterized by using powder X-ray diffractometer, N2 adsorption–desorption surface area and pore size analyzer and high resolution transmission electron microscope. CaO loaded mesoporous aluminas exhib-ited poor crystalline mesoporous structure having c-Al2O3 phase. The fluoride removal capacities of the synthesized adsorbents were evaluated using batch adsorption studies. Kinetic data revealed that, the fluoride sorption on 20 wt.% CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 was rapid, and 90% fluoride removal was achieved within 15 min. CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 showed higher fluoride adsorption capacity (137 mg/g) and faster kinetics than mesoporous Al2O3.

Saturday, 8 February 2014

Skeletal Fluorosis In Relation To Drinking Water, Nutritional Status And Living Habits In Rural Areas Of Maharashtra, India By Varsha Dhurvey , Sonali Dhawas

Fluorosis is an endemic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride (F) through drinking water,
food or dentrifices. Skeletal fluorosis is caused by prolonged intake of excessive amounts of fluoride. Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and in many countries around the world but it is a major public health problem in some 25 countries in Asia and Africa. Good nutrition is as important for bone health as it is for general health. The severity of fluoride toxicity depends on the concentration of fluoride in drinking water, daily intake of fluoride, continuity and duration of exposure to fluoride, although the adequate nutrient intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein are of critical importance for bone health, phosphorus and certain trace minerals (magnesium, manganese, copper, and zinc) and vitamin C and K are also involved in bone health.

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Saturday, 1 February 2014

Basic Methods For Assessment Of Renal Fluoride Excretion In Community Prevention Programmes For Oral Health By WHO

Fluoride is a natural constituent of all types of human diet and is present, in varying amounts, in drinking water throughout the world. Because of its value in preventing decay (i.e. formation of dental caries), fluoride is increasingly being used for this purpose in several countries. Enamel     fluorosis (unsightly mottling of the teeth) is the only untoward effect of the use of fluoride, and the condition is known to occur in regions worldwide wherever drinking water contains high levels of     fluoride naturally. Most of the time throughout the day, teeth are bathed in saliva; hence, the teeth benefit from fl uoride ions present in the oral environment, originating from a number of sources to which the individual may be exposed. The concentration of fluoride in saliva varies among individuals, and depends on various factors such as salivary secretion rate and the type of fluoride exposure. To exert a cariostatic effect, fluoride levels need to rise above the predominantly low level several times throughout the day. When fluoride is added to vehicles such as water, salt or milk, it becomes available in the oral cavity at optimal levels several times a day, whereas tooth brushing with fluoride containing toothpaste provide concentrated fluoride twice a day. These methods of    fluoride supplementation are highly successful in reducing levels of dental caries in entire populations. Fluoride is also available through concentrated gels, rinsing solutions, lacquers or varnishes. These methods are most appropriate for selective use on individuals who are suffering from high caries activity.

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Sunday, 19 January 2014

Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone by Qingshan Wei, Richie Nagi , Kayvon Sadeghi , Steve Feng , Eddie Yan , So Jung Ki , Romain Caire, Derek Tseng and Aydogan Ozcan

Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs <40 g, we quantified mercury(II) ion concentration in water samples by using a two-color ratiometric method employing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 523 and 625 nm, where a custom-developed smart application was utilized to process each acquired
transmission image on the same phone to achieve a limit of detection of ∼3.5 ppb. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we generated a mercury contamination map by measuring water samples at over 50 locations in California (USA), taken from city tap water sources, rivers, lakes, and
beaches. With its cost-effective design, field-portability, and wireless data connectivity, this sensitive and specific heavy metal detection platform running on cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time.

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Friday, 3 January 2014

Ameliorative Effect Of Epigallocatechin Gallate On Sodium Fluoride Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated Metabolism In Rat by S. Thangapandiyan , S. Miltonprabu

Fluorosis is the phenomenon caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride for a prolonged period of time. Intrinsic geological re-sources and more recently the arrival of increased industrialization and attendant ecological contaminated waste have contributed seriously to the increasing incidence of fluoride-related human health problem. High stratum of fluoride in drinking water has become a future health hazard all over the world, approximately with 66.62 million victims in India alone. Fluoride enters the hu-man and animal body through drinking water and to a slight extent through food (Susheela 2007). High quantity of fluoride ingestion causes metabolic anarchism, by interacting with a variety of cellu-lar processes such as gene expression, cell cycle, proliferation and migration, respiration, metabolism, ion transport, secretion, endo-cytosis, apoptosis, necrosis and oxidative stress, and disrupts the antioxidant security system in the body (Strunecka et al. 2007; Barbier et al. 2010). Numerous studies have shown that fluorosis may induce nucleotide damage, inhibition of protein synthesis and alters mitochondrial functions resulting in the energy deficient state of the cell (Jeng et al. 1998). Fluoride has already been re-ported to be hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemics, in fasting blood glucose levels in laboratory animals, which was attributed to lower Insulin levels (Rupal et al. 2010; Gracia-Montalvo et al. 2009). Philips and Hart (1935) first demonstrated that lipid metabolism was altered by toxic levels of fluoride given to rats. Fluoride expo-sure is resulting in generation of superoxide anion (O2-), and its downstream consequences such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals, which are important in medi-ating the toxic effects of fluoride (Barbier et al. 2010). Oxidative stress mediated free radical generation is known to be one of the most important mechanisms of fluoride toxicity (Nabavi et al. 2012). Fluoride has the ability to initiate respiratory burst and stimulate the generation of free radicals, which change the struc-ture and permeability of cell membranes and impair the cell func-tion (Chlubek 2003). Numerous studies have indicated an in-creased oxidative stress in the serum, liver and brain of animals exposed to fluoride (Grucka-Mamczar et al. 2009). Moreover, fluoride affects the activity of enzymes constituting the cell anti-oxidant system whose role is to protect against free radicals (Chinnoy 2003).

A Comparative Study of Fluoride Ingestion Levels, Serum Thyroid Hormone & TSH Level Derangements, Dental Fluorosis Status Among School Children From Endemic And Non-Endemic Fluorosis Areas by Navneet Singh , Kanika Gupta Verma , Pradhuman Verma , Gagandeep Kaur Sidhu and Suresh Sachdeva

The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland
functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing
underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

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Thursday, 2 January 2014

Fluoride content in Pan masala, chewing tobacco, betel nuts (supari), toothpastes and tooth-powder items used and consumed in rural and urban parts of Rampur district, Uttar Pradesh by Rajesh Kumar, S.S.Yadav

Levels of fluoride content in pan masala, chewing tobacco, betel nuts, toothpastes and tooth-powder were
estimated in the rural and urban areas of Rampur district (Uttar Pradesh). These items are, generally,
ignored while calculating the total dietary intake of fluoride. An effort was also made to quantify, on the
basis of available studies, the probable human ingestion of fluoride through these substances. Increased
leaching of fluoride from some of these substances has been observed in acidic conditions in the present
study. The results can be extrapolated to acidic conditions of human stomach. The significant amount of
fluoride ingested through these items is equivalent to additional sources of fluoride.

Wednesday, 1 January 2014


This study aims to determine the concentrations of fluoride in UK tea products andtheir infusions. This is related to the uptake and distribution of fluoride within teaplants Camellia sinensis (L.). Human oral bioaccessibility of fluoride from theconsumption of tea infusions was estimated, using an in vitro approach. The possiblehealth significance from fluoride exposure is discussed.Fluoride in tea products and the distribution within the tea plant was determinedusing a method, involving alkali fused digestion with ion chromatography and aconductivity detector for the instrumentation. For the aqueous infusions and thesupernatants in the bioaccessibility experiments, ion selective electrode with avoltmeter was adopted.Mean fluoride concentrations in tea products and their infusions varied significantly(p<0.001; n=3) and were related to the type of tea product and the retail cost. Thehigher priced teas, such as Darjeeling, Assam and Oolong, had lower fluorideconcentrations. The lower priced supermarket Economy ranged teas were significantlyhigher (p<0.05) in fluoride and exhibited concentrations similar to Chinese Brick tea,which is prepared using mature tea leaves. The higher quality products are preparedby selecting the finest tips of tea (buds), whereas an Economy products use coarserharvesting techniques to include mature leaves in the product.Fluoride affinity and tolerance of C. sinensis was assessed by a series of fluoride dosingexperiments, ranging from 0 to 200 mg. Following fluoride dosing, a rapid uptake andaccumulation occurred throughout the tea plants, resulting in partial necrosis ofrandom leaves. Despite the necrosis, the plants tolerated the fluoride and continuedto increase in height, although at a significantly slower rate (p<0.05) compared to thecontrol plants. Accumulation of fluoride was observed to be mostly in the matureleaves followed by younger buds, then the roots. This relates to the part of the plantivused to produce the tea types, with mature leaves for Economy products and the budsfor the finer teas.The in vitro bioaccessibility assessment of fluoride estimated that over 91.4% offluoride from a tea infusion is available in the human gastric compartment, with 92.1%in the gastro-intestinal compartment. The addition of milk reduced fluoride absorptionin the gastric and gastro-intestinal compartments to 73.8 and 83.1%, respectively,possibly reacting to form calcium fluoride. Despite the percentage bioaccessibility, theconcentration of fluoride available for absorption in the human gut was dependentupon choice of tea product. Based on an adult male, the findings suggest thatconsuming a litre of Economy tea can fulfil or exceed (75 to 120%) the recommendeddietary reference intake (DRI) of fluoride at 4 mg a day, but only partially fulfil (25 to40%) when consuming a more expensive Pure blend such as Assam.With regards to health, tea consumption is a source of fluoride in the diet and is highlyavailable for absorption in the human gut. Tea alone can fulfil an adult fluoride DRI,but is dependent upon choice of tea product. Excess fluoride in the diet can lead todetrimental health effects such as fluorosis of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis andconsuming economy branded tea can lead to a higher exposure.

Tuesday, 17 December 2013

The Effect Of Non-Fluoride Factors On Risk Of Dental Fluorosis: Evidence From Rural Populations Of The Main Ethiopian Rift By Julia Kravchenko , R. Brittany Merola , Tewodros Rango , Christopher Paul , Igor Akushevich , Erika Weinthal , Behailu Atlaw , Courtney Harrison , Peter G. McCornick , Avner Vengosh , Marc Jeuland

Elevated level of fluoride (F−) in drinking water is a well-recognized risk factor of dental fluorosis (DF). While considering optimization of region-specific standards for F−, it is reasonable, however, to consider how local diet, water sourcing practices, and non-F− elements in water may be related to health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that non-F− elements in groundwater and lifestyle and demographic characteristics may be independent predictors or modifiers of the effects of F− on teeth. Dental examinations were conducted among 1094 inhabitants from 399 randomly-selected households of 20 rural communities of the Ziway–Shala lake basin of the Main Ethiopian Rift. DF severity was evaluated using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Household surveys were performed and water samples were collected from community water sources. To consider interrelations between the teeth within individual (in terms of DF severity) and between F− and non-F− elements in groundwater, the statistical methods of regression analysis, mixed models, and principal component analysis were used. About 90% of study participants consumed water from wells with F− levels above the WHO recommended standard of 1.5 mg/l. More than 62% of the study population had DF. F− levels were a major factor associated with DF. Age, sex, and milk consumption (both cow's and breastfed) were also statistically significantly (p b 0.05) associated with DF severity; these associations appear both independently and as modifiers of those identified between F− concentration and DF severity. Among 35 examined elements in groundwater, Ca, Al, Cu, and Rb were found to be significantly correlated with dental health outcomes among the residents exposed to water with excessive F− concentrations. Quantitative estimates obtained in our study can be used to explore new water treatment strategies, water safety and quality regulations, and lifestyle recommendations which may be more appropriate for this highly  populated region.

Saturday, 16 November 2013

Field Method For Estimation Of Fluoride In Drinking Groundwater By Photometric Measurement Of Spot On Aluminium Quinalizarin Reagent Paper By Zaher Barghouthi , Sameer Amereih

A simple field method for determination of fluoride in drinking water using handmade fluoride reagent paper impregnated by aluminium quinalizarin complex was developed. Fluoride reacts with the impregnated reagent paper to release the free ligand with new colour, orange different from that of the complex. The change in the colour, which is proportional to the amount of fluoride, was measured by the Arsenator. The functionality of the Arsenator which is based on a photometric measurement of spot on the reagent paper is expanded to analyse fluoride. The method allows a reliable determination of fluoride in the range 0.0–2.0 mg L1 Further spectrophotometric determinations of fluoride showed that Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 0.3–5.0 mg L1 at 553 nm. Sensitivity, detection limit, quantitation limit, and the percentage recovery of 1.5 mg L1 fluoride were found to be 0.117 lg mL1., 0.1 mg L1 , 0.3 mg L1 and 101.2 respectively.

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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Fluoride, Premature Birth And Impaired Neurodevelopment By John D. MacArthur

Premature or preterm birth is birth prior to 37 weeks (8.5 months) of pregnancy. Not just a temporary
problem dealt with during the first weeks of an infant’s life, premature birth is a leading cause of long- term neurological disabilities in children. Significantly more educational assistance than children who were born at term. The societal economic burden associated with preterm birth in the United States is estimated to be at least $26 billion per year, or more than $50,000 per infant born preterm. Premature birth is the most common pregnancy complication that can seriously compromise the newborn brain’s viability and normal development. Many studies have documented the prevalence of a broad range of central nervous system dysfunctions and neurodevelopmental impairments in people who were born preterm, including mental retardation, ADHD, and major depression. The genesis and wiring of the human brain during fetal development is one of the most remarkable feats in all of biology. During the last trimester, dynamic changes occur in the two brain areas most important to cognitive processes: the cerebellum whose surface area increases 30-fold; and the cerebral cortex whose white matter undergoes striking changes. Preterm infants are more likely to have lower IQs and require

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